Application > Spectroscopy - Raman Spectroscopy

Raman Spectroscopy


Raman Spectroscopy In Raman Spectroscopy, a substance is irradiated with a narrow-band light at a high optical power to detect the weak emission lines which arise from spontaneous or stimulated Raman Scattering. The spectrum of Raman Scattered light contains information about molecular vibrations, and helps identify key properties of the material - such as wavenumber scale for example, which is essential in pharma-applications.

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Raman Spectroscopy is an analytical tool used to determine key properties of inorganic and organic materials. The chemical bonds within the material scatter incident light, producing a characteristic Raman Spectrum. The technique is non-destructive, requires minimal sample preparation and provides rapid results. Raman Spectroscopy can be used to quickly identify a sample and to provide information about properties such as structure, phase, temperature, crystallinity, polymorphism, protein folding, hydrogen bonding, intrinsic stress and strain and contamination.

The Raman effect was discovered by the scientist C. V. Raman in 1928 using sunlight as the light source. In 1930 Raman won the Nobel Prize in physics for this discovery.

Samples are illuminated using monochromatic laser light in the visible, near infrared or near ultraviolet range. The photons interact with the bonds and electron clouds of the molecules and are scattered differently depending on the vibrational, rotational, and other low-frequency modes of the system. Optics are used to collect and filter the scattered light, which is then dispersed onto a detector. Computer software analyzes this input and arranges the data to produce a Raman spectrum. Specialized Raman techniques include spatially-offset Raman Spectroscopy, surface-enhanced Raman Spectroscopy, polarized Raman Spectroscopy, resonance Raman Spectroscopy and tip-enhanced Raman Spectroscopy.

Raman Spectroscopy is based on the principle that not all light scattered from a molecule is elastically scattered. Elastic scatter, in which incident photons scattered from the molecule have the same wavelength, is termed Rayleigh scatter. Most of the scatter from a molecule is Rayleigh scatter; however, a small but measurable fraction consists of photons that are inelastically scattered. These photons are scattered at wavelengths different from the incident photons, corresponding to the energy of the vibration of the molecules and their structure. This process is termed the Raman effect and the inelastic scatter is termed Raman scatter. Usually, Stokes Raman scatter is observed, in which the scattered photon has a longer wavelength (lower energy) than the incident photon due to the molecule being in a ground state. Anti-Stokes Raman scatter is observed when the molecule is in a vibrationally excited state and the scattered photon has a shorter wavelength (higher energy) than the incident photon.

A Raman Spectrum features peaks of Raman scattered light, showing their intensity and wavelength position. Each bond or group of bonds within a molecule has a unique molecular vibration and structure. The interaction of light with these vibrating molecular bonds produces unique corresponding peaks on the spectrum. This creates what is essentially a chemical "fingerprint”"which can be used to quickly and reliably identify a sample and to characterize its composition. Spectra from Stokes Raman scatter and Anti-Stokes Raman scatter contain the same frequency information. Most Raman spectra are representations of Stokes scatter as most molecules at room temperature exist in the ground state. Anti-Stokes scatter is used for contact thermometry and when Stokes scatter is not easily observable.

Raman Spectra can often be combined in mapping systems to produce images of a sample. This allows for the visualization of the distribution of components within a sample as well as variation in properties such as crystallinity and polymorphism.

Applications

Samples that can be analyzed using Raman Spectroscopy include pure chemicals, solutions and mixtures of inorganic and organic solids, powders, liquids, gels, slurries and gases. Both general characteristics as well as subtle compositional and structural properties can be determined. Raman Spectroscopy is a non-destructive, non-contact technique, making it invaluable when sample integrity must be preserved or sampling is to be done in situ, in vitro or in vivo. Chemical reactions can be analyzed as they occur without interference. Drug-cell and chemical-skin interactions can be studied. Forensics or art and archaeology samples can remain unchanged. A typical spectrum takes only seconds to produce and minimal sample preparation means high throughput.

Raman Spectroscopy is used across several industries, including:

Pharmaceuticals and Cosmetics

- component distribution for quality testing

- blend uniformity

- powder purity

- material verification and throughput screening

- contaminant identification

- real-time reaction analysis

- real-time monitoring of granulation, drying and coating

- non-destructive testing of tablets, gel caps and liquid formulations

Chemistry

- characterization of catalysts

- intermediate formation and control

- yield optimization

- end-point detection

- screening in early-phase discovery

Art and Archaeology

- dating of artifacts

- characterization of pigments

- identification of gemstones

Geology

- identification of minerals and their distribution

- phase distributions and transitions

- fluid inclusions

Carbon Materials

- composition, properties and structure of nanotubes

- diamond quality

- defect identification

Petrochemicals

- process monitoring and control

- cracking, solvent extractions, blending and C4 processing

- gasoline; octane, blending, oxygenates

- polymer analysis (PS, PVC, LDPL, HDPE, PP)

Semiconductors

- purity, alloy composition and contamination identification

- intrinsic stress and strain

- superlattice and hetero structures

- defect analysis

- contactless thermometry

- in-situ analysis of processing baths

Life Sciences

- Raman Microscopy of cells and tissues

- disease diagnosis and cancer identification

- study of bone and dental tissue

- drug interactions

- DNA/RNA analysis

- forensics; sample analysis, explosives detection and identification of drugs of abuse

Lasers for Raman Spectroscopy

A wide range of wavelengths can be used for Raman Spectroscopy, including but not limited to: near ultraviolet (244 nm, 257 nm, 325 nm, 364 nm), visible (457 nm, 473 nm, 488 nm, 514 nm, 532 nm, 633 nm, 660 nm), and near infrared (785 nm, 830 nm, 980 nm, 1064 nm). The choice of which laser to use is dependent on the type of application and several factors have to be considered. Raman scattering intensity is inversely proportional to wavelength so infrared lasers will produce weaker scattering as compared to lasers emitting in the visible to ultraviolet range. Certain types of materials are better analyzed by certain wavelength ranges. Visible wavelength lasers are useful for inorganic materials, while near infrared and near ultraviolet lasers are utilized when fluorescence suppression is desired as fewer materials absorb at these wavelengths. Choice of wavelength also contributes to achievable spectral resolution. Spectral resolution is the amount of detail in the Raman Spectrum. Low to medium spectral resolution is sufficient for general screening and identification of materials. High spectral resolution is required in order to determine characteristics such as polymorphism, crystallinity, protein folding, hydrogen bonding and intrinsic stress/strain. The higher the spectral resolution needed the longer the total measuring time. Laserglow Technologies offers several laser systems for Raman Spectroscopy. Contact our staff for application specific recommendations.

Raman Spectroscopy Lasers


Product WavelengthSpec Sheet Description Starting At In Stock
532 nm

Best Seller!

532 nm DPSS Laser System
5 - 300 mW Output Power
$1,004.00
1064 nm

Best Seller!

1064 nm DPSS Laser System
100 - 1000 mW Output Power
$1,139.00
1064 nm

Best Seller!

1064 nm Low-Noise DPSS Laser System
100 - 1000 mW Output Power
$1,379.00
473 nm

Best Seller!

473 nm DPSS Laser System
5 - 100 mW Output Power
$1,505.00
1064 nm

Best Seller!

Environmentally Sealed 1064 nm DPSS Laser System
100 - 1000 mW Output Power
$2,125.00
785 nm
785 nm Collimated Diode Laser System
300 - 2500 mW Output Power
$2,293.00
473 nm

Best Seller!

473 nm DPSS Laser System
200 - 500 mW Output Power
$2,300.00
457 nm
457 nm DPSS Laser System
5 - 500 mW Output Power
$2,648.00
785 nm
785 nm Collimated Diode Laser System with Near-TEM00 Beam
50 - 100 mW Output Power
$2,885.00
532 nm

Best Seller!

Fanless Fanless 532 nm DPSS Laser System
500 - 1000 mW Output Power
$3,125.00
532 nm

Best Seller!

532 nm DPSS Laser System
500 - 1000 mW Output Power
$3,125.00
515 nm
515 nm DPSS Laser System
10 - 50 mW Output Power
$3,167.00
1064 nm

Best Seller!

1064 nm DPSS Laser System
2000 - 2000 mW Output Power
$3,167.00
1064 nm

Best Seller!

1064 nm Single-Longitudinal-Mode DPSS Laser System
50 - 1000 mW Output Power
$3,219.00
532 nm

Best Seller!

532 nm Low-Noise DPSS Laser System
5 - 200 mW Output Power
$3,296.00
1064 nm

Best Seller!

1064 nm Low-Noise DPSS Laser System
2000 - 2000 mW Output Power
$3,712.00
532 nm

Best Seller!

Fanless 532 nm Single-Longitudinal-Mode DPSS Laser System
5 - 300 mW Output Power
$3,712.00
473 nm

Best Seller!

Fanless 473 nm Low-Noise DPSS Laser System
5 - 500 mW Output Power
$3,749.00
785 nm
785 nm Diode Laser System For Raman Spectroscopy
$3,833.00
532 nm

Best Seller!

532 nm DPSS Laser System
2000 mW Output Power
$3,920.00
785 nm
785 nm Collimated Diode Laser System with TEM00 Beam
10 - 40 mW Output Power
$4,148.00
473 nm

Best Seller!

Environmentally Sealed 473 nm DPSS Laser System
10 - 100 mW Output Power
$4,211.00
785 nm
785 nm Diode Laser System For Raman Spectroscopy
300 - 600 mW Output Power
$4,264.00
457 nm
457 nm Low-Noise DPSS Laser System
5 - 500 mW Output Power
$4,430.00
532 nm

Best Seller!

Environmentally Sealed 532 nm DPSS Laser System
10 - 300 mW Output Power
$4,446.00
473 nm

Best Seller!

Fanless 473 nm DPSS Laser System
5 - 500 mW Output Power
$4,562.00
532 nm

Best Seller!

Fanless 532 nm Low-Noise DPSS Laser System
500 - 1000 mW Output Power
$5,118.00
1064 nm

Best Seller!

1064 nm DPSS Laser System
4000 - 5000 mW Output Power
$6,009.00
532 nm

Best Seller!

532 nm Low-Noise DPSS Laser System
2000 - 2000 mW Output Power
$6,480.00
1064 nm

Best Seller!

1064 nm Low-Noise DPSS Laser System
4000 - 5000 mW Output Power
$6,927.00
532 nm

Best Seller!

532 nm DPSS Laser System
3000 - 5000 mW Output Power
$7,591.00
473 nm

Best Seller!

Fanless 473 nm Single-Longitudinal-Mode DPSS Laser System
5 - 100 mW Output Power
$7,713.00
532 nm

Best Seller!

532 nm Single-Longitudinal-Mode DPSS Laser System
- mW Output Power
$7,986.00
473 nm

Best Seller!

473 nm DPSS Laser System
800 - 1500 mW Output Power
$8,673.00
532 nm

Best Seller!

532 nm DPSS Laser System
- mW Output Power
$9,292.00
532 nm

Best Seller!

532 nm Low-Noise DPSS Laser System
5000 - 5000 mW Output Power
$9,534.00
457 nm
457 nm DPSS Laser System
1000 - 2000 mW Output Power
$9,820.00
515 nm
515 nm DPSS Laser System
100 - 100 mW Output Power
$9,820.00
457 nm
457 nm Low-Noise DPSS Laser System
1000 - 2000 mW Output Power
$11,137.00
1064 nm

Best Seller!

1064 nm DPSS Laser System
10000 - 20000 mW Output Power
$12,151.00
457 nm
457 nm DPSS Laser System
4000 - 10000 mW Output Power
$13,204.00
532 nm

Best Seller!

532 nm DPSS Laser System
8000 - 20000 mW Output Power
$13,204.00
473 nm

Best Seller!

473 nm DPSS Laser System
$14,316.00
515 nm
515 nm DPSS Laser System
200 - 500 mW Output Power
$14,316.00
532 nm

Best Seller!

532 nm Single-Longitudinal-Mode DPSS Laser System
500 - 1000 mW Output Power
$14,367.00
532 nm

Best Seller!

532 nm Low-Noise DPSS Laser System
8000 - 20000 mW Output Power
$14,383.00
457 nm
457 nm Low-Noise DPSS Laser System
3000 - 10000 mW Output Power
$15,488.00
1064 nm

Best Seller!

1064 nm Low-Noise DPSS Laser System
10000 - 20000 mW Output Power
$16,891.00
532 nm

Best Seller!

532 nm Single-Longitudinal-Mode DPSS Laser System
2000 - 5000 mW Output Power
$18,707.00
1064 nm

Best Seller!

1064 nm Single-Longitudinal-Mode DPSS Laser System
2000 - 10000 mW Output Power
$18,707.00
1064 nm

Best Seller!

1064 nm DPSS Laser System
50000 - 200000 mW Output Power
$19,779.00
473 nm

Best Seller!

473 nm DPSS Laser System
- mW Output Power
$19,786.00

Research Papers That Have Used Laserglow Products


Here are a list of research papers that reference Laserglow Technologies products in their Raman Spectroscopy research

Research Papers

Paper Title Date Published University Product Used In Research
Redox reactions of cytochrome c in isolated mitochondria exposed to blue or red lasers using resonance Raman spectroscopy Febuary 2018 711th Human Performance Wing, Airman Systems Directorate (United States) 532 nm - 300mW
Polymer-based gadolinium oxide nanocomposites for FL/MR/PA imaging guided and photothermal/photodynamic combined anti-tumor therapy Febuary 2018 Tianjin Key Laboratory of Drug Delivery and High-Efficiency, School of Pharmaceutical Science 488 nm
3D printable optomechanical cage system with enclosure December 2017 Bethel University, St. Paul, MN 532 nm - 300mW
Time-Resolved Energetics of Photoprocesses in Prokaryotic Phytochrome-Related Photoreceptors May 2017 Department of Physics and Earth Science, University of Parma, Parma, Italy 660 nm
Raman Spectroscopy of Head and Neck Cancer: Separation of Malignant and Healthy Tissue Using Signatures Outside the "Fingerprint" Region August 2016 Department of Physics & Engineering Physics, Fordham University 443 nm
Bioconjugated graphene oxide-based Raman probe for selective identification of SKBR3 breast cancer cells May 2016 Department of Chemistry and Physics, Alcorn State University 624 nm

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